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Angaben Absender Firma. Frau Herr. Angaben Empfänger Firma. Produkttyp Name Art. Teotihuacan, with a population of more than , people, had some of the largest pyramidal structures in the pre-Columbian Americas.
At this time, during the Epi-Classic, Nahua peoples began moving south into Mesoamerica from the North, and became politically and culturally dominant in central Mexico, as they displaced speakers of Oto-Manguean languages.
During the early post-classic era ca. Toward the end of the post-Classic period, the Mexica established dominance, establishing a political and economic empire based in the city of Tenochtitlan modern Mexico City , extending from central Mexico to the border with Guatemala.
Prescott, it was adopted by most of the world, including 19th-century Mexican scholars who considered it a way to distinguish present-day Mexicans from pre-conquest Mexicans.
This usage has been the subject of debate since the late 20th century. The Aztec empire was an informal or hegemonic empire because it did not exert supreme authority over the conquered territories; it was satisfied with the payment of tributes from them.
It was a discontinuous empire because not all dominated territories were connected; for example, the southern peripheral zones of Xoconochco were not in direct contact with the center.
The hegemonic nature of the Aztec empire was demonstrated by their restoration of local rulers to their former position after their city-state was conquered.
The Aztec did not interfere in local affairs, as long as the tributes were paid. The Aztec of Central Mexico built a tributary empire covering most of central Mexico.
Along with this practice, they avoided killing enemies on the battlefield. Their warring casualty rate was far lower than that of their Spanish counterparts, whose principal objective was immediate slaughter during battle.
Over the next centuries many other Mexican indigenous cultures were conquered and gradually subjected to Spanish colonial rule.
Although the Spanish had established colonies in the Caribbean starting in , it was not until the second decade of the sixteenth century that they began exploring the coast of Mexico.
The Spanish first learned of Mexico during the Juan de Grijalva expedition of The natives kept "repeating: Colua, Colua , and Mexico, Mexico , but we [explorers] did not know what Colua or Mexico meant", until encountering Montezuma's governor at the mouth of the Rio de las Banderas.
Around conquistadores , along with horses, cannons, swords, and long guns gave the Spanish some technological advantages over indigenous warriors, but key to the Spanish victory was making strategic alliances with disgruntled indigenous city-states altepetl who supplied the Spaniards and fought with them against the Aztec Triple Alliance.
She quickly learned Spanish and gave strategic advise about how to deal with both indigenous allies and indigenous foes.
The Spanish gained other indigenous allies, who also joined in the war for their own reasons. We know so much about the conquest because it is among the best documented events in world history from multiple points of view.
When the Spaniards arrived, the ruler of the Aztec empire was Moctezuma II , who after a delay allowed the Spanish to proceed inland to Tenochtitlan.
The Spanish captured him, holding him hostage. He died while in their custody and the Spanish retreated from Tenochtitlan in great disarray.
The exact number of deaths is disputed, but unquestionably more than 3 million natives who they had no immunity. Any population estimate of pre-Columbian Mexico is bound to be a guess but 8—12 million is often suggested for the area encompassed by the modern nation.
The territory became part of the Spanish Empire under the name of New Spain in Much of the identity, traditions and architecture of Mexico developed during the year colonial period from to independence in The Kingdom of New Spain was created from the remnants of the Aztec empire.
The two pillars of Spanish rule were the State and the Roman Catholic Church, both under the authority of the Spanish crown.
In the pope had granted sweeping powers to the Spanish crown, with the proviso that the crown spread Christianity in its new realms.
In , King Charles I created the Council of the Indies based in Spain to oversee State power its overseas territories; in New Spain the crown established a high court in Mexico City, the Real Audiencia , and then in created the viceroyalty.
The viceroy was highest official of the State. In the religious sphere, the diocese of Mexico was created in and elevated to the Archdiocese of Mexico in , with the archbishop as the head of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, overseeing Roman Catholic clergy.
Castilian Spanish was the language of rulers. The Catholic faith the only one permitted, with non-Catholics Jews and Protestants and Catholics excluding Indians holding unorthodox views being subject to the Mexican Inquisition , established in In the first half-century of Spanish rule, a network of Spanish cities was created, sometimes on pre-Hispanic sites.
The capital Mexico City was and remains the premier city. Cities and towns were hubs of civil officials, ecclesiastics, business, Spanish elites, and mixed-race and indigenous artisans and workers.
When deposits of silver were discovered in sparsely populated northern Mexico, far from the dense populations of central Mexico, the Spanish secured the region against fiercely resistant indigenous Chichimecas.
The Viceroyalty at its greatest extent included the territories of modern Mexico, Central America as far south as Costa Rica, and the western United States.
The population of Mexico was overwhelmingly indigenous and rural during the entire colonial period and beyond, despite the massive decrease in their numbers due to epidemic diseases.
Diseases such as smallpox, measles, and others were introduced by Europeans and African slaves, especially in the sixteenth century.
The indigenous population stabilized around one to one and a half million individuals in the 17th century from the most commonly accepted five to thirty million pre-contact population.
The first census in Mexico then known as New Spain that included an ethnic classification was the census.
Also known as the Revillagigedo census. Most of its original datasets have reportedly been lost, thus most of what is known about it nowadays comes from essays and field investigations made by academics who had access to the census data and used it as reference for their works such as German scientist Alexander von Humboldt.
The total population ranged from 3,, to 6,, Colonial law with Spanish roots was introduced and attached to native customs creating a hierarchy between local jurisdiction the Cabildos and the Spanish Crown.
Upper administrative offices were closed to native-born people, even those of pure Spanish blood criollos. Administration was based on the racial separation.
Society was organized in a racial hierarchy, with whites on top, mixed-race persons and blacks in the middle, and indigenous at the bottom.
There were formal legal designations of racial categories. Spaniards were exempt from paying tribute, Spanish men had access to higher education, could hold civil and ecclesiastical offices, were subject to the Inquisition , and liable for military service when the standing military was established in the late eighteenth century.
Indigenous paid tribute, but were exempt from the Inquisition, indigenous men were excluded from the priesthood; and exempt from military service.
Although the racial system appears fixed and rigid, there was some fluidity within it, and racial domination of whites was not complete.
This discrimination between the two became a sparking point of discontent for white elites in the colony.
The Marian apparition of the Virgin of Guadalupe said to have appeared to the indigenous Juan Diego in gave impetus to the evangelization of central Mexico.
The rich deposits of silver, particularly in Zacatecas and Guanajuato , resulted in silver extraction dominating the economy of New Spain.
Taxes on silver production became a major source of income for Spain. Other important industries were the haciendas and mercantile activities in the main cities and ports.
As a result of its trade links with Asia, the rest of the Americas, Africa and Europe and the profound effect of New World silver , central Mexico was one of the first regions to be incorporated into a globalized economy.
Being at the crossroads of trade, people and cultures, Mexico City has been called the "first world city ".
Silver and the red dye cochineal were shipped from Veracruz to Atlantic ports in the Americas and Spain. Veracruz was also the main port of entry in mainland New Spain for European goods, immigrants from Spain, and African slaves.
Mexican silver pesos became the first globally used currency. Spanish forces, sometimes accompanied by native allies, led expeditions to conquer territory or quell rebellions through the colonial era.
Among the best-known pirate attacks are the Sack of Campeche  and Attack on Veracruz. It created a standing military, increased coastal fortifications, and expanded the northern presidios and missions into Alta California.
The riot over the price of maize escalated to a full-scale attack on the seats of power, with the viceregal palace and the archbishop's residence attacked by the mob.
Due to the importance of New Spain administrative base, Mexico was the location of the first printing shop ,  first university ,  first public park ,  and first public library in the Americas,  among other institutions.
The Academy of San Carlos was the first major school and museum of art in the Americas. On 16 September , a "loyalist revolt" against the ruling junta was declared by priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla , in the small town of Dolores , Guanajuato.
Hidalgo and some of his soldiers were captured and executed by firing squad in Chihuahua , on 31 July In an act of mercy, Bravo instead pardoned the prisoners, most of whom then joined the insurgent cause.
This Act also abolished slavery and the caste system. The conflicts that arose from the mids had a profound effect because they were widespread and made themselves perceptible in the vast rural areas of the countries, involved clashes between castes, different ethnic groups, and haciendas, and entailed a deepening of the political and ideological divisions between republicans and monarchists.
The first thirty-five years after Mexico's independence were marked by political instability and the changing form of the Mexican State, from a monarchy to a federated republic.
Catholicism remained the only permitted religious faith and the Catholic Church as an institution retained its special privileges , prestige, and property, a bulwark of Conservatism.
The army, another Conservative institution, also retained its privileges. The young and weak United States was the first country to recognize Mexico's independence, sending an ambassador to the court of the emperor and sending a message to Europe via the Monroe Doctrine not to intervene in Mexico.
The emperor's rule was short —23 and he was overthrown by army officers. The successful rebels established the First Mexican Republic.
In , a constitution of a federated republic was promulgated and former insurgent general Guadalupe Victoria became the first president of the newly born republic.
In , former insurgent general and fierce Liberal Vicente Guerrero , a signatory of the Plan de Iguala that achieved independence, became president in a disputed election.
During his short term in office, April to December , he abolished slavery. As a visibly mixed-race man of modest origins, Guerrero was seen by white political elites as an interloper.
Mexico's ability to maintain its independence and establish a viable government was in question. Spain attempted to reconquer its former colony during the s, but eventually recognized its independence.
France attempted to recoup losses it claimed for its citizens during Mexico's unrest and blockaded the Gulf Coast during the so-called Pastry War of — Mexico also contended with indigenous groups which controlled territory that Mexico claimed in the north.
The Comanche controlled a huge territory in the sparsely populated region of central and northern Texas.
The region bordered the United States, and was territory controlled by Comanches. There were few settlers from central Mexico moving to this remote and hostile territory.
Some brought their black slaves, which after was contrary to Mexican law. Santa Anna sought to centralize government rule, suspending the constitution and promulgating the Seven Laws , which place power in his hands.
When he suspended the Constitution, civil war spread across the country. The largest blow to Mexico was the U.
Mexico lost much of its sparsely populated northern territory, sealed in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Despite that disastrous loss, Conservative Santa Anna returned to the presidency yet again and then was ousted and exiled in the Liberal Revolution of Ayutla.
The overthrow of Santa Anna and the establishment of a civilian government by Liberals allowed them to enact laws that they considered vital for Mexico's economic development.
It was a prelude to more civil wars and yet another foreign invasion. The Liberal Reform attempted to modernize Mexico's economy and institutions along liberal principles.
They promulgated a new Constitution of , separating Church and State, stripping the Conservative institutions of the Church and the military of their special privileges fueros ; mandating the sale of Church-owned property and sale of indigenous community lands, and secularizing education.
The Liberals defeated the Conservative army on the battlefield, but Conservatives sought another solution to gain power via foreign intervention by the French.
Two years later, the French Army withdrew its support, Maximilian remained in Mexico rather than return to Europe. The Conservatives had been not only defeated militarily, but also discredited politically for their collaboration with the French invaders.
Liberalism became synonymous with patriotism. The Porfiriato was characterized by economic stability and growth, significant foreign investment and influence, an expansion of the railroad network and telecommunications, and investments in the arts and sciences.
The government encouraged British and U. Commercial agriculture developed in northern Mexico, with many investors from the U.
The Mexican government ordered a survey of land with the aim of selling it for development.
In this period, many indigenous communities lost their lands and the men became landless wage earners on large landed enterprises haciendas.
Changes in Mexican law allowed for private enterprises to own the subsoil rights of land, rather than continuing the colonial law that gave all subsoil rights to the State.
An industrial manufacturing sector also developed, particularly in textiles. At the same time, new enterprises gave rise to an industrial work force, which began organizing to gain labor rights and protections.
As an integral aspect of the liberal project was secular education. He made no attempt, however, to establish a family dynasty, naming no relative as his successor.
Political opposition had been suppressed and there were few avenues for a new generation of leaders. But his announcement set off a frenzy of political activity, including the unlikely candidacy of the scion of a rich landowning family, Francisco I.
The September centennial celebration of independence was the last celebration of the Porfiriato. The Mexican Revolution starting in saw a decade of civil war, the "wind that swept Mexico.
The Mexican Revolution was a decade-long transformational conflict in Mexico, with consequences to this day.
Madero in In that army was dissolved as an institution. Following the revolutionaries' victory against Huerta, revolutionary armies sought to broker a peaceful political solution, but the coalition splintered, plunging Mexico into civil war again.
Constitutionalist general Pancho Villa , commander of the Division of the North, broke with Carranza and allied with Zapata.
Carranza became the de facto head of Mexico, and the U. In , the winners met at a constitutional convention to draft the Constitution of , which was ratified in February It is estimated that the war killed , of the population of 15 million.
The U. During the Revolution, the Taft administration supported the Huerta coup against Madero, but when Woodrow Wilson was inaugurated as president in March , it refused to recognize Huerta's regime and allowed arms sales to the Constitutionalists.
Wilson ordered troops to occupy the strategic port of Veracruz in , which was lifted. Pershing in an unsuccessful attempt to capture Villa.
Carranza pushed back against U. The expeditionary forces withdrew as the U. Consolidating power, President Carranza had peasant-leader Emiliano Zapata assassinated in Carranza chose a political and revolutionary no-body to succeed him.
The first quarter-century of the post-revolutionary period was characterized by revolutionary generals serving as Presidents of Mexico.
In consolidating power, victorious eorthern revolutionary generals systematically worked to tame the military and bring it under civilian n control.
The post-revolutionary project of the Mexican government sought to bring order to the country, end military intervention in politics, and create organizations of interest groups.
Workers, peasants, urban office workers, and even the army for a short period were incorporated as sectors of the single party that dominated Mexican politics from its founding in He gained recognition from the United States and took steps to settle claims with companies and individuals that lost property during the Revolution.
He imposed his fellow former Sonoran revolutionary general, Calles, as his successor, prompting an unsuccessful military revolt.
As president Calles provoked a major conflict with the Catholic Church and Catholic guerrilla armies when he strictly enforced anticlerical articles of the Constitution.
The Church-State conflict was mediated and ended with the aid of the U. Ambassador to Mexico.
Calles could not become president again, since he has just ended his term. He sought to set up a structure to manage presidential succession, founding the party that was to dominate Mexico until the late twentieth century.
Calles declared that the Revolution had moved from caudillismo rule by strongmen to the era institucional institutional era.
Despite not holding the presidency, Calles remained the key political figure during the period known as the Maximato This included the Mexican oil expropriation in March , which nationalized the U.
This movement would result in the creation of the state-owned Mexican oil company Pemex. The government poured huge resources into building new facilities.
At the same time, there was political unrest by university students and others with those expenditures, while their own circumstances were difficult.
The culmination was the Tlatelolco Massacre ,  which claimed the lives of around protesters based on conservative estimates and perhaps as many as Although the economy continued to flourish for some, social inequality remained a factor of discontent.
PRI rule became increasingly authoritarian and at times oppressive in what is now referred to as the Mexican Dirty War . His government had to contend with mistrust of Mexicans and increasing economic problems.
He instituted some with electoral reforms. Economic problems worsened in his early term, then massive reserves of petroleum were located off Mexico's Gulf Coast.
Pemex did not have the capacity to develop these reserves itself, and brought in foreign firms. Those foreign banks were happy to lend to Mexico because the oil reserves were enormous and future revenues were collateral for loans denominated in U.
When the price of oil dropped, Mexico's economy collapsed in the Crisis. Interest rates soared, the peso devalued, and unable to pay loans, the government defaulted on its debt.
President Miguel de la Madrid —88 resorted to currency devaluations which in turn sparked inflation. In the s the first cracks emerged in the PRI's complete political dominance.
In there was massive electoral fraud , with results showing that Salinas had won the election by the narrowest percentage ever.
There were massive protests in Mexico City to the stolen election. Salinas took the oath of office on 1 December Although Salinas won by fraud, he embarked on a program of neoliberal reforms which fixed the exchange rate of the peso, controlled inflation, opened Mexico to foreign investment, and began talked with the U.
In order to do that, the Constitution of was amended in several important ways. Article 27, which allowed the government to expropriate natural resources and distribute land, was amended to end agrarian reform and to guarantee private owners' property rights.
The anti-clerical articles that muzzled religious institutions, especially the Catholic Church, were amended. The agreement came into effect on 1 January ; the same day, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation EZLN started a two-week-long armed rebellion against the federal government, and has continued as a non-violent opposition movement against neoliberalism and globalization.
His political coalition, led by his left-wing party, founded after the elections includes parties and politicians from all over the political spectrum.
The coalition also won a majority in both the upper and lower congress chambers. AMLO's one of his many nicknames success is attributed to the country's other strong political alternatives exhausting their chances as well as the politician adopting a moderate discourse with focus in conciliation.
Mexico has contended with high crime rates , official corruption, narcotrafficking , and a stagnant economy.
Many state-owned industrial enterprises were privatized starting in the s, with neoliberal reforms, but Pemex, the state-owned petroleum company is only slowly being privatized, with exploration licenses being issued.
Although there were fears of electoral fraud in Mexico's presidential elections,  the results gave a mandate to AMLO. Mexico's literacy rate is high, at Donald Trump made the construction of a border wall on the U.
Mexico is crossed from north to south by two mountain ranges known as Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental , which are the extension of the Rocky Mountains from northern North America.
From east to west at the center, the country is crossed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt also known as the Sierra Nevada. Three major urban agglomerations are located in the valleys between these four elevations: Toluca , Greater Mexico City and Puebla.
The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months.
South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation.
This gives Mexico one of the world's most diverse weather systems. Both Mexican coasts, except for the south coast of the Bay of Campeche and northern Baja, are also vulnerable to serious hurricanes during the summer and fall.
Climate change in Mexico is expected to have widespread impacts on Mexico: with significant decreases in precipitation and increases in temperatures.
This will put pressure on the economy, people and the biodiversity of many parts of the country, which have large arid or hot climates.
Already climate change has impacted agriculture  , biodiversity , farmer livelihoods, and migration,   as well as "water, health, air pollution, traffic disruption from floods, [and] housing vulnerability to landslides.
Climate change impacts are especially severe in Mexico City due to increases in air pollution. Furthermore, climate change in Mexico is tied to worldwide trade and economic processes which relates directly to global food security.
Mexico ranks fourth  in the world in biodiversity and is one of the 17 megadiverse countries. In [update] , Mexico had the second fastest rate of deforestation in the world, second only to Brazil.
These include 34 biosphere reserves unaltered ecosystems , 67 national parks , 4 natural monuments protected in perpetuity for their aesthetic, scientific or historical value , 26 areas of protected flora and fauna, 4 areas for natural resource protection conservation of soil, hydrological basins and forests and 17 sanctuaries zones rich in diverse species.
The discovery of the Americas brought to the rest of the world many widely used food crops and edible plants.
Most of these names come from indigenous languages like Nahuatl. Because of its high biodiversity Mexico has also been a frequent site of bioprospecting by international research bodies.
The United Mexican States are a federation whose government is representative , democratic and republican based on a presidential system according to the Constitution.
The constitution establishes three levels of government: the federal Union, the state governments and the municipal governments.
According to the constitution, all constituent states of the federation must have a republican form of government composed of three branches: the executive, represented by a governor and an appointed cabinet, the legislative branch constituted by a unicameral congress  [ original research?
They also have their own civil and judicial codes. The federal legislature is the bicameral Congress of the Union , composed of the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies.
The Congress makes federal law , declares war, imposes taxes, approves the national budget and international treaties, and ratifies diplomatic appointments.
The federal Congress, as well as the state legislatures, are elected by a system of parallel voting that includes plurality and proportional representation.
Of these, are elected by plurality vote in single-member districts the federal electoral districts and are elected by proportional representation with closed party lists  for which the country is divided into five electoral constituencies.
Of these, 64 senators two for each state and two for Mexico City are elected by plurality vote in pairs; 32 senators are the first minority or first-runner up one for each state and one for Mexico City , and 32 are elected by proportional representation from national closed party lists.
The executive is the President of the United Mexican States , who is the head of state and government , as well as the commander-in-chief of the Mexican military forces.
The President also appoints the Cabinet and other officers. The President is responsible for executing and enforcing the law, and has the power to veto bills.
The highest organ of the judicial branch of government is the Supreme Court of Justice , the national supreme court , which has eleven judges appointed by the President and approved by the Senate.
The Supreme Court of Justice interprets laws and judges cases of federal competency. Other institutions of the judiciary are the Federal Electoral Tribunal , collegiate, unitary and district tribunals, and the Council of the Federal Judiciary.
Three parties have historically been the dominant parties in Mexican politics: the Institutional Revolutionary Party PRI , a center-left party and member of Socialist International  that was founded in to unite all the factions of the Mexican Revolution and held an almost hegemonic power in Mexican politics since then; the National Action Party PAN , a conservative party founded in and belonging to the Christian Democrat Organization of America ;  and the Party of the Democratic Revolution PRD a left-wing party,  founded in as the successor of the coalition of socialists and liberal parties.
PRD emerged after what has now been proven was a stolen election in ,  and has won numerous state and local elections since then.
PAN won its first governorship in , and won the presidency in and Unlike many Latin American countries, the military in Mexico does not participate in politics and is under civilian control.
Public security is enacted at the three levels of government, each of which has different prerogatives and responsibilities.
Local and state police departments are primarily in charge of law enforcement, whereas the Mexican Federal Police are in charge of specialized duties.
While the government generally respects the human rights of its citizens, serious abuses of power have been reported in security operations in the southern part of the country and in indigenous communities and poor urban neighborhoods.
Despite the efforts of the authorities to fight crime and fraud, most Mexicans have low confidence in the police or the judicial system, and therefore, few crimes are actually reported by the citizens.
Drug cartels are a major concern in Mexico. Department of State warns its citizens to exercise increased caution when traveling in Mexico, issuing travel advisories on its website.
This move was criticized by the opposition parties and the National Human Rights Commission for escalating the violence,  but its effects have been positively evaluated by the US State Department's Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs as having obtained "unprecedented results" with "many important successes".
More than journalists and media workers have been killed or disappeared since , and most of these crimes remained unsolved, improperly investigated, and with few perpetrators arrested and convicted.
The mass kidnapping of the 43 students in Iguala on 26 September triggered nationwide protests against the government's weak response to the disappearances and widespread corruption that gives free rein to criminal organizations.
The foreign relations of Mexico are directed by the President of Mexico  and managed through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
In addition, since the s Mexico has sought a reform of the United Nations Security Council and its working methods  with the support of Canada, Italy, Pakistan and other nine countries, which form a group informally called the Coffee Club.
After the War of Independence , the relations of Mexico were focused primarily on the United States, its northern neighbor, largest trading partner ,  and the most powerful actor in hemispheric and world affairs.
President Donald Trump on either trade or migration, while maintaining neutrality on Venezuela and welcoming Chinese money. The Mexican military "provides a unique example of a military leadership's transforming itself into a civilian political elite, simultaneously transferring the basis of power from the army to a civilian state.
The Mexican Armed Forces maintain significant infrastructure, including facilities for design, research, and testing of weapons, vehicles, aircraft, naval vessels, defense systems and electronics;   military industry manufacturing centers for building such systems, and advanced naval dockyards that build heavy military vessels and advanced missile technologies.
In recent years, Mexico has improved its training techniques, military command and information structures and has taken steps to becoming more self-reliant in supplying its military by designing as well as manufacturing its own arms,  missiles,  aircraft,  vehicles, heavy weaponry, electronics,  defense systems,  armor, heavy military industrial equipment and heavy naval vessels.
Mexico has the capabilities to manufacture nuclear weapons, but abandoned this possibility with the Treaty of Tlatelolco in and pledged to only use its nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.
Historically, Mexico has remained neutral in international conflicts,  with the exception of World War II. However, in recent years some political parties have proposed an amendment of the Constitution to allow the Mexican Army, Air Force or Navy to collaborate with the United Nations in peacekeeping missions , or to provide military help to countries that officially ask for it.
The United Mexican States are a federation of 31 free and sovereign states, which form a union that exercises a degree of jurisdiction over Mexico City.
Each state has its own constitution, congress , and a judiciary, and its citizens elect by direct voting a governor for a six-year term, and representatives to their respective unicameral state congresses for three-year terms.
Mexico City is a special political division that belongs to the federation as a whole and not to a particular state. The states are divided into municipalities , the smallest administrative political entity in the country, governed by a mayor or municipal president presidente municipal , elected by its residents by plurality.
GDP annual average growth was 2. After the slowdown of the country has recovered and has grown 4. Although multiple international organizations coincide and classify Mexico as an upper middle income country, or a middle class country   Mexico's National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy CONEVAL , which is the organization in charge to measure the country's poverty reports that a huge percentage of Mexico's population lives in poverty.
Said economists do point out that the percentage of people living in poverty according to Mexico's national poverty line is around 40 times higher than the one reported by the World Bank's international poverty line with said difference being the biggest in the world and ponder if it would not be better for countries in the situation of Mexico to adopt internationalized standards to measure poverty so the numbers obtained could be used to make accurate international comparisons.
Nevertheless, according to Goldman Sachs , by Mexico will have the 5th largest economy in the world. The electronics industry of Mexico has grown enormously within the last decade.
Mexico produces the most automobiles of any North American nation. The remittances from Mexican citizens working in the United States account for 0.
By , Mexico could potentially become the world's fifth or seventh largest economy. Mobile telephony has the advantage of reaching all areas at a lower cost, and the total number of mobile lines is almost two times that of landlines, with an estimation of 63 million lines.
The Mexican satellite system is domestic and operates earth stations. There is also extensive microwave radio relay network and considerable use of fiber-optic and coaxial cable.
Energy production in Mexico is managed by the state-owned companies Federal Commission of Electricity and Pemex. This is the world's fourth most productive hydroelectric plant.
Mexico is the country with the world's third largest solar potential. It is expected that in there will be 1,8 million square meters of installed solar thermal panels.
At an installed capacity of The National Autonomous University of Mexico was officially established in ,  and the university became one of the most important institutes of higher learning in Mexico.
Most of the new research institutes were created within UNAM. Twelve institutes were integrated into UNAM from to In , the Mexican chemist Mario J.
Crutzen and F. Sherwood Rowland for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.
As of , Mexico was the 6th most visited country in the world and had the 15th highest income from tourism in the world which is also the highest in Latin America.
A smaller number also come from other Latin American countries. The coastlines of Mexico harbor many stretches of beaches that are frequented by sunbathers and other visitors.
According to national law , the entirety of the coastlines are under federal ownership, that is, all beaches in the country are public.
Just offshore is the beach island of Isla Mujeres , and to the east is the Isla Holbox. In addition to its beaches, the town of Tulum is notable for its cliff-side Mayan ruins.
On the Pacific coast is the notable tourist destination of Acapulco. Once the destination for the rich and famous, the beaches have become crowded and the shores are now home to many multi-story hotels and vendors.
Acapulco is home to renowned cliff divers: trained divers who leap from the side of a vertical cliff into the surf below.
At the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula is the resort town of Cabo San Lucas , a town noted for its beaches and marlin fishing.
The roadway network in Mexico is extensive and all areas in the country are covered by it. Other achievements include the existence of a functioning national system to finance water and sanitation infrastructure with a National Water Commission as its apex institution; and the existence of a few well-performing utilities such as Aguas y Drenaje de Monterrey.
In addition to on-going investments to expand access, the government has embarked on a large investment program to improve wastewater treatment.
Throughout the 19th century, the population of Mexico had barely doubled. This trend continued during the first two decades of the 20th century, and even in the census there was a loss of about 1 million inhabitants.
The phenomenon can be explained because during the decade from to the Mexican Revolution took place. The Mexican population doubled in twenty years, and at that rate it was expected that by the year there would be million Mexicans.
Life expectancy went from 36 years in to 72 years in the year Even though Mexico is a very ethnically diverse country, research about ethnicity has largely been a forgotten field, in consequence of the post-revolutionary efforts of Mexico's government to unify all non-indigenous Mexicans under a single ethnic identity that of the "Mestizo".
As a result, since the only explicit ethnic classification that has been included in Mexican censuses has been that of "Indigenous peoples".
It is not until very recently that the Mexican government begun conducting surveys that considered the Afro-Mexican and Euro-Mexican population that lives in the country.
As of [update] , it is estimated that 1. Despite being a diverse country; the majority of Mexicans are united under the same national identity.
The total percentage of Mexico's indigenous peoples tends to vary depending of the criteria used by the government on its censuses: it is 5.
The Afro-Mexican population 1,, individuals as of [update]  is an ethnic group made up of descendants of Colonial-era slaves and recent immigrants of sub-Saharan African descent.
Mexico had an active slave trade during the colonial period, and some , Africans were taken there, primarily in the 17th century.
The creation of a national Mexican identity, especially after the Mexican Revolution, emphasized Mexico's indigenous and European past; it passively eliminated the African ancestors and contributions.
Evidence of this long history of intermarriage with Mestizo and indigenous Mexicans is also expressed in the fact that in the inter-census, It was also reported that 9.
During the early 20th century, a substantial number of Arabs mostly Christians  began arriving from the crumbling Ottoman Empire.
The largest group were the Lebanese and an estimated , Mexicans have some Lebanese ancestry. During the colonial era Asians were termed Chino regardless of ethnicity , and arrived as merchants, artisans and slaves.
In recent times the Mexican government has decided to conduct new ethnic surveys and censuses, also widening the criteria to classify the ethnicities who were already considered such as the Indigenous Mexican one, which was previously reserved to people who lived in indigenous communities or spoke an indigenous language.
Out of all the ethnic groups that have recently been surveyed, that of Mestizos is notably absent, which may be consequence of the ethnic label's fluid and subjective definition, which complicates a precise calculation as well the tendency that Mexicans have to identify people with "static" ethnic labels rather than "fluid" ones.
In the early s, around , Mexicans lived abroad, which increased sevenfold by the s to 4. Spanish is the de facto national language spoken by the vast majority of the population, making Mexico the world's most populous Hispanophone country.
The letters b and v have the same pronunciation as well. Words of foreign origin also maintain their original spelling such as whisky and film, as opposed to güisqui and filme as the Royal Academy suggests.
The federal government officially recognizes sixty-eight linguistic groups and varieties of indigenous languages.
Aside from indigenous languages, there are several minority languages spoken in Mexico due to international migration such as Low German by the 80,strong Menonite population , primarily settled in the northern states, fuelled by the tolerance of the federal government towards this community by allowing them to set their own educational system compatible with their customs and traditions.
It is estimated that nearly 24 million, or around a fifth of the population, study the language through public schools, private institutions or self-access channels.
The 20 largest cities in Mexico as of the census. The 92,,  Catholics of Mexico constitute in absolute terms the second largest Catholic community in the world, after Brazil 's.
The Constitution of declared that the official religion of the Republic would be Catholic. Mexican liberals took power in the mid-nineteenth-century, determined to curtail the power of the Roman Catholic Church, and embedded anticlericalism in the Constitution of , touching off the civil war, the War of the Reform —61 , largely over religion.
Conservatives were defeated on the battlefield and then sought a foreign ally for their cause of religion, aligning with the French, who placed Maximilian Hapsburg as monarch in the Second Mexican Empire — The Mexican republic defeated the Conservatives and executed Maximilian and two prominent Mexican generals, definitively ending the Conservative attempt to reassert the power of the Catholic Church.
From the late nineteenth century Porfiriato , Protestants began to make inroads in Mexico. The Mexican Revolution had a large number of Protestants participating in northern Mexico.
The Constitution of strengthened the anticlerical provisions that were carried over from the Constitution. The war ended with an agreement between the parties in conflict Catholic Church and State , by means of which the respective fields of action were defined.
When President Carlos Salinas de Gortari sought Mexico's inclusion in the North American Free Trade Agreement , the constitution was changed in to eliminate the anticlerical articles long opposed by the Catholic Church and other religious institutions; the anticlerical articles were considered a violation of freedom of religion.
According to the figures of INEGI , most Mexicans declare themselves Christian and most Catholics almost 93 million adherents according to the census of The denominations Pentecostal also have an important presence, especially in the cities of the border and in the indigenous communities.
In fact, Pentecostal churches together have more than 1. The situation changes when the different Pentecostal denominations are considered as separate entities.
Migratory phenomena have led to the spread of different aspects of Christianity, including branches Protestants , Eastern Catholic Churches and Eastern Orthodox Church.
According to Jacobo Grinberg-Zylberbaum in texts edited by the National Autonomous University of Mexico , it is remarkable the survival of magic-religious rituals of the old indigenous groups, not only in the current indigenous people but in the mestizos and whites that make up the Mexican rural and urban society.
There is often a syncretism between shamanism and the Catholic tradition. Although Mexico was also a recipient of black slaves from Africa in the 16th century, the apogee of these cults is relatively new.
In certain regions, the profession of a creed other than the Catholic is seen as a threat to community unity.
It is argued that the Catholic religion is part of the ethnic identity, and that the Protestants are not willing to participate in the traditional customs and practices the tequio or community work, participation in the festivities and similar issues.
The refusal of the Protestants is because their religious beliefs do not allow them to participate in the cult of images.
In extreme cases, tension between Catholics and Protestants has led to the expulsion or even murder of Protestants in several villages.
A similar argument was presented by a committee of anthropologists to request the government of the Republic to expel the Summer Linguistic Institute SIL , in the year , which was accused of promoting the division of indigenous peoples by translating the Bible into vernacular languages and evangelizing in a Protestant creed that threatened the integrity of popular cultures.
The Mexican government paid attention to the call of the anthropologists and canceled the agreement that had held with the SIL.
Welche Art von Maschine benötigen Sie? Haben Sie bereits ein spezielles Modell ins Auge gefasst?
Weitere Optionen. Möchten Sie zukünftig auf das manuelle Nachpolieren der Gläser verzichten? Einfache Bedienbarkeit.
Möchten Sie eine möglichst benutzerfreundliche Maschine? Soll das Spülgut möglichst trocken aus der Maschine kommen? Haben Sie oft stark vermutztes Spülgut, das gespült werden muss?
Benötigen Sie aufgrund der Wasserbeschaffenheit in ihrer Region oder dem gewünschten Spülergebniss eine Wasserenthärtung oder Entsalzung?
Benötigen Sie möglicherweise eine Band- oder Korbtransportmaschine, um extrem viel Spülgut zu bewältigen? Sollte Ihr Spülgut möglichst schnell wieder einsatzbereit sein?
Möchten Sie die Anschaffungskosten einer neuen Geschirrspülmaschine inkl. Service und Chemie in kleine Raten zahlen?
Spülgut: Gemischtes Geschirr. Es wurden 22 Maschinen gefunden, die zu Ihren Kriterien passen:. Es wurden keine Standardprodukte gefunden.
Bitte kontaktieren uns für ein indivduelles Angebot. Beratungstermin vereinbaren mehr Details. Besonders Cocktailgläser und langstielige Weingläser werden mit dem Sanftanlauf schonend aber glänzend sauber.
Die Haubenautomatik sorgt für weniger Arbeitsbelastung des Personals und spart darüberhinaus noch Zeit - bis zu 30 Minuten pro Spültag.
Ergonomisches Arbeiten, weniger Dampf und optimale Spül- und Trocknungsergebnisse sind mit dieser Haubenmaschine kein Problem.
Das erleichtert die Arbeit, verkürzt Spülzeiten und sorgt für optimale Spülergebnisse. Die Industriespülmaschine FV Dank der Einschubhöhe von mm können gleich zwei Transportbehälter gespült werden und das integrierte Punkt2 AirConcept sorgt für weniger Dampf.
Die Bandspülmaschine M-iQ lässt keine Wünsche offen: Sie erkennt Lücken auf dem Transportband und schaltet die Klarspülung nur dort ein, wo sich das Spülgut befindet - das spart Energie.
Das manuelle Ablegen auf dem Förderband der Spülmaschine entfällt und das senkt den Kostenaufwand. Die M-iQ zeigt Ihnen, was eine Korbspülmaschine heute zu leisten im Stande ist: Bis zu Körbe pro Stunde und dabei noch Energie sparen, Ressourcen schonen und mit Bedienkomfort und Ergonomie überraschen — und vor allem überzeugen!
Sie ist speziell für die Anforderungen des Bäckerhandwerks entwickelt und spült weg was kommt. Nasse Arbeitsbereiche und feuchte Körbe sind Vergangenheit.
Mit einer Gesamtlänge von mm ohne Trocknung und einer enormen Einschubhöhe reinigt sie bis zu Körbe pro Stunde.
Mit einer Gesamtlänge von mm ohne Trocknung und einer zusätzlichen Klarspülzone schafft diese Korbtransportspülmaschine bis zu Körbe pro Stunde.
Wasser marsch - für bis zu Körbe pro Stunde. Mit einer zusätzlichen Vorwaschzone schafft diese Korbtransportspülmaschine richtig was weg und das bei einer Gesamtlänge von mm ohne Trocknung.
Wer viel Spülgut zu bewältigen hat, ist mit einer Gesamtlänge von mm ohne Trocknung gut bedient. Wenn Sie Lust verspüren, aktiver Teil einer kooperativen Unternehmensfamilie mit nachhaltigen Wachstumschancen zu werden, dann eröffnen sich Ihnen hier wirklich interessante Perspektiven.
Wie sich Plastikmüll vermeiden lässt? Zoltan Toth, Geschäftsführer evenTZ by foodaffairs. Diese Chance sollte man nicht verpassen!
Kontrollierte Wohnraumlüftung mit Wärmerückgewinnung garantiert nicht nur bestes Raumklima, gesundes Wohnen und einen langfristigen Erhalt der Gebäudesubstanz, sondern wird auch staatlich gefördert bei regelungstechnischer Verbindung mit einer Wärmepumpe.
Mehr Informationen! Hier haben wir gebündelte Informationen zur Thematik für Sie, die Sie beruhigen werden. Er enthält beispielhaft verschiedenste Musterplanungen.
Zum KWL-Leitfaden. Hervorzuheben sind die verschiedenen Anwendungsbeispiele mit dem Einsatz unserer Ventilatoren in explosionsgefährdeten Bereichen.
Zum Ex-Leitfaden. Radon ist ein farb- und geruchloses, natürlich vorkommendes, radioaktives Edelgas, das durch den Zerfall von Uran entsteht.
Eine zu hohe Radonkonzentration in der Raumluft birgt erhebliche, gesundheitliche Risiken. Hier erfahren Sie mehr! Clevere Be- und Entlüftung von Wohn- und Schlafbereichen.
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